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A review of literature highlights the important components that should be included in an online orientation course. Several components were revealed as critical, and they can be categorized as follows: (1) Technology, (2) Self-Directed Learning Skills, (3) Expectations, (4) Resources. It is recommended that an online orientation course should include those these components in a holistic manner, because these components are intertwined.


Most literature emphasize emphasizes the importance of technology competency. Technical aspects include the effective use of the Learning Management System (LMS) or administrative management system (e.g., course search/registration, tuition, etc). The University should consider promoting essential and sufficient technological skills so that students can fully appreciate the online education. The orientation program can teach how to do the following specific tasks. These tasks were developed through a Task Analysis conducted by North Carolina State University:


Self-Directed Learning Skills

Literature indicate indicates that successful online learning is shown to be dependent on strong self-learning skills such as (1) time management skills, (2) communication skills (student-instructors/emails/non-face-to-face communications), (3) concentration (vs. procrastination), (4) self-motivation, (5) time commitment, (6) organization skills. Among them, time management was most frequently cited as the important indicator for successful online learning experiences. Therefore, online orientation course courses should foster such skills, using framework or techniques. Some scholars mentioned a low level of awareness of online learning.


Scholars mentioned that students who has have little or no experience of online learning showed a low level of awareness of online learning. By establishing expectations at an early stage of their online learning experience, students are expected to increase their preparedness of for online learning. Expectations can be reciprocal—that is, online orientation course should carefully listen to both faculty and student capacity ; and create the realistic expectations. Relevant university policy such as expected time for a credit hour (3 credits/9-11 hours) should be included as an expectation. Technological requirements, such as , the ability to access to Blackboard is another expectation that is recommended to appear in an online orientation.


Literature The literature review revealed the importance of support/resources as a repeating theme. The support include (1) technology support (e.g., Blackboard, PeopleSoft), (2) pedagogical supportssupport, (3) availability of online support, (4) knowledge base, (5) community of users, (6) students in need of accommodation, and/or (7) online student advising service. According to the literature review, it is important to include the availability of support units and contact information. A researcher also mentioned that online  researcher mentioned that an orientation course should be conducted online, as a student is taking their course online and can work on the course any day of the week and at any time of the day. Online orientation should be available within those same time parameters.